In the past, there were no cadastral surveys and land titles. However, there were already conveyances such as sale, lease, dowry (wedding gift to the bride),diyah (blood money), inheritance, and royalty gratuities.
The Sultanate of Sulu owns the Spratleys. In 1417, the heirs of Sultan Paduka Pahala already gave it as gratuity gift to China after his death while on State Visit to China. It is the same manner of conveyance (though royal gratuity gift) as how Sabah, which was owned by Brunei, ended up in the ownership of the warriors of the Sultanate of Sulu.
The Bangsamoro People owns Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan, and Sabah and are fully aware that there are squatters (who were issued colonial land titles which later became Torrens Title and Homestead Titles). This is the root cause of the Bangsamoro War that is still ongoing.
Now I will give you a brief assignment to talk to your relatives who migrated to Mindanao so you will have a personal touch of this lesson. If your clan is originally from Visayas and Luzon, it is most likely that you have some relatives who transmigrated to Mindanao or Palawan between 1930s to 1970s. The transmigration was a result of the Homestead Program (HP).
The HP is a very simple anomaly. First, the colonizers (or colonizer-controlled Philippine President) issues land title (issued in Manila) to their cronies specifying large tracks of land areas in Mindanao even without inspecting who is residing and working on the land -- the output is a Homestead Title. Then the crony who received the Homestead Title will subdivide the land and sell it to those who avail of the Homestead Program. The cronies also have conflict against fellow cronies because the HP titles overlap with one another (naturally because the boundaries are roughly estimated only, there were no land survey made).
Ang mga local people na nakatira sa Mindanao and Palawan for centuries na eh nagulat na lang na merong dumadating na taga Ilocos (at iba pang lugar sa Luzon) na merong hawak na titulo ng lupa nila -- so nagkaroon ng conflict. The Philippine Government sends in the Army to supress the local people in favor of the beneficiaries of the Homestead Program who holds title.
The HP was very cruel. The local people were uprooted, massacred one family after the next, and most of them were pushed to the highlands and to the now ARMM areas. Now we have the Bangsamoro People and Bangsamoro War in the Philippines.
China will help the Bangsamoro People recover their NATION! This is the most exciting thing to watch in the coming years. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is the army of the Bangsamoro People (Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan, Sabah) and will soon recover Sabah from the Malaysian occupation.
If there is anything else important that I forgot to include in this article, or if you experienced a real estate transaction that is anomalous, scam, fraudulent scheme that you want me to document and expose for others to be warned, or if you want to donate to the war chest of real estate consumer rights advocacy, please feel free to email me at JohnPetalcorin@Gmail.Com. If you want to comment about this article, there is a provision for this purpose that you can find below.
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